Reverse Osmosis (RO) in Water Purification
Purified and mineral water are common water for drinking. However, the two forms are manufactured in different distinct processes before it is packed in bottles using the water filling machine. For instance, purified water is generated through the reverse osmosis process while the mineral water is mainly through the ultrafiltration process. You can as well generate both pure and mineral water through the RO process. The purpose of general water treatment is to remove the contaminants from the raw water and make it pure enough for drinking and other purposes. The most common contaminants are bacteria, suspended solids, fungi, minerals such as iron, sulfur, manganese, algae, colloids, and pyrogens.
Purpose of reverse osmosis
- To prevent suspended particles and colloidal material from plugging
- To prevent membrane fouling
- Prevention of microbial fouling
- Prevention of organic fouling
- Prevention of oxidation
- Maintenance of stability in ultrafiltration plant
- To perform auto and manual washing
- To manual wash with treatment
- To auto stop, high water levels and auto start low water levels
This process begins by removal of suspended particles and impurities such as micelle in quartz sand filter. Then there is a softener and an active carbon filter where an organic substance, chromo, chlorine, and the odor is gotten rid of. This filter usually has the consummate pretreatment system that allows the RO system to be standby for long.
The organic substance, salt, heat source, bacteria, and other impurities are normally removed in a reverse osmosis system. Also, with this process, the ration of salt-doffed will be 97-99 percent. Depending on the nature of machines, this process can be manual or automatic. The automatic process usually adopts the pressure and water sensor. The system will be fully automatic when adjusted to auto mode and is easy to operate.
In the RO process, the untreated and treated water are separated by a membrane. There is an osmotic pressure that enables the treated water to untreated water. If pressure is added to the untreated water the osmotic pressure increases forcing the untreated water to move in the other direction. If water has a lot of suspended particles and solutes, it cannot move through the membrane and will get drained out.
To protect the RO membrane, you must ensure that the water is pretreated first before it comes to the system. You can monitor this process of purification using the conductivity meter. You also have to clean regularly the filters, steel pump, valves, disinfectant tanks, and other RO components.